Water Crisis: From Cape Town to Bangalore, World suffers from Water Scarcity; What, Facts, Why & Solutions

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SK Agarwal
SK Agarwal
Editor, MBAUniverse.com
April 12, 2024

Water, the elixir of life, is facing a crisis of unprecedented proportions globally. As populations burgeon and climate change wreaks havoc on traditional weather patterns, the availability and quality of water are increasingly under threat. This GD Topic delves comprehensively into the current water crisis, meticulously examining its causes, manifestations, and potential solutions. Given the importance, Water Crisis GD Topic is expected to be part of GD and Interview for MBA and other competitive exams and admission process. Read this MBAUniverse.com GD Topic for complete understanding.  


What is Water Crisis

The water crisis refers to a dire situation where the quantity and quality of available water fall markedly short of meeting the ever-expanding demands of various sectors, including domestic, agricultural, and industrial. It encompasses multifaceted issues such as acute water scarcity, pervasive pollution, and glaring inequalities in water distribution, posing significant challenges to sustainable development and human well-being. 

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Global Water Crisis - Facts & Figures

  • Despite great progress, billions of people still lack access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene. Achieving universal coverage by 2030 will require a substantial increase in current global rates of progress: sixfold for drinking water, fivefold for sanitation and threefold for hygiene.
  • Water use efficiency has risen by 9 per cent, but water stress and water scarcity remain a concern in many parts of the world. In 2020, 2.4 billion people lived in water-stressed countries. The challenges are compounded by conflicts and climate change.
  • Key strategies to get Goal 6 back on track include increasing sector-wide investment and capacity-building, promoting innovation and evidence- based action, enhancing cross-sectoral coordination and cooperation among all stakeholders, and adopting a more integrated and holistic approach to water management.
  • Only 0.5 per cent of water on Earth is useable and available freshwater – Wake up to the looming water crisis, report warns | World Meteorological Organization
  • Limiting global warming to 1.5°C compared to 2°C would approximately halve the proportion of the world population expected to suffer water scarcity, although there is considerable variability between regions.Chapter 8: Water Cycle Changes (p. 1063)
  • The global urban population facing water scarcity is projected to double from 930 million in 2016 to 1.7–2.4 billion people in 2050. Imminent risk of a global water crisis, warns the UN World Water Development Report 2023 | UNESCO
  • Despite progress, 2.2 billion people still lacked safely managed drinking water services, 3.5 billion lacked safely managed sanitation services, and 2.0 billion lacked basic hygiene services in 2022
  • Surface water bodies, such as lakes, rivers, and reservoirs, are undergoing rapid global changes, with one in five river basins showing high fluctuations in surface water levels in the past 5 years
  • Water pollution poses a significant challenge to human health and the environment in many countries.

 Source: Sustainable Development Goals Report 2023


Why this Crisis

Several interrelated factors contribute substantially to the exacerbation of the water crisis, including rapid population growth, unprecedented urbanization, relentless industrialization, and the ominous specter of climate change. As the global population surges inexorably, so does the voracious demand for water, exerting immense pressure on finite water resources. Additionally, unchecked pollution from industrial discharge, rampant agricultural runoff, and woefully inadequate sanitation exacerbates the problem manifold, rendering once pristine water sources unfit for human consumption and ecological sustenance.


Cape Town Water Crisis

The Cape Town water crisis serves as a stark and sobering reminder of the perilous precipice on which humanity teeters amidst the looming specter of water scarcity. In 2018, the city faced the ominous specter of "Day Zero," ominously portending a grim scenario wherein taps would run dry due to a protracted and punishing drought exacerbated by egregious mismanagement and woefully inadequate infrastructure. The crisis precipitated an urgent and unprecedented spate of water-saving measures, compelling residents to embark on a Herculean quest to conserve every precious drop and embrace sustainable water management practices with alacrity and resolve.  

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Bangalore Water Crisis

Bangalore, India's bustling IT hub and Silicon Valley, is grappling with an inexorable and ominous water crisis of its own, precipitated by the confluence of rapid urbanization, unchecked growth, and abysmally inadequate water management practices. Depletion of groundwater reserves, wanton encroachment of water bodies, and unabated pollution have collectively conspired to push the city to the brink of an impending water catastrophe of gargantuan proportions. Unless decisive and concerted action is taken with unprecedented alacrity and resolve, Bangalore risks hurtling headlong into the abyss of acute water shortages, with cataclysmic repercussions reverberating across the length and breadth of the burgeoning metropolis.


What can be Done

Effectively addressing the water crisis demands nothing short of a concerted and multifaceted approach, meticulously crafted to encompass a panoply of conservation measures, judicious water use practices, robust infrastructure development initiatives, and sweeping policy reforms. Strategic investment in cutting-edge water-saving technologies, widespread adoption of rainwater harvesting and wastewater recycling mechanisms, and the promulgation of sustainable agricultural practices hold the promise of alleviating water stress to a significant extent. Moreover, fostering community participation, launching targeted awareness campaigns, and effectuating pragmatic government intervention are quintessential prerequisites for ensuring equitable access to water resources and fostering a culture of conscientious water stewardship across society.



In conclusion, the water crisis looms large on the horizon as an ominous harbinger of impending catastrophe, demanding nothing short of urgent and concerted action at global, national, and local levels. By steadfastly embracing a holistic and integrated approach to water management, harnessing the transformative power of innovation and technology, and fostering collaborative partnerships across diverse stakeholder groups, humanity can aspire to mitigate the pernicious impacts of the crisis and chart a course toward a brighter and more sustainable water future for generations to come.


Given the importance, Water Crisis GD Topic is expected to be part of GD and Interview for MBA and other competitive exams and admission process. Read above MBAUniverse.com GD Topic for complete understanding.   

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