G 20 - India Presidency in 2023: History, Plans, Expectations and Roadmap

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The Group of Twenty, popularly known as G20, is the global forum for international economic cooperation. It plays an important role in shaping and strengthening global architecture and governance on all major international economic issues. India G20 Presidency 2023 takes effect from 1 December 2022 to 30 November 2023. Prime Minister Narendra Modi formally received the baton of the India G20 presidency 2023 (the Group of 20 countries comprising 19 large economies and the European Union) from Indonesian president Joko Widodo at the conclusion of the 17th G20 Summit 2022 in Bali on 16 November. While accepting this responsibility, PM Modi has outlined the G20 Theme and said that India’s G20 presidency will be “inclusive, ambitious, decisive and action-oriented”. He said that it will be India’s endeavour that “G20 works as a global prime mover to give impetus to collective action”. Accordingly all the G20 Countries comprising the G20 Members, are to work together at G20 Summit 2023. 

 

India’s assumption of the G20 presidency has decisively signalled its emergence as a significant player on the global stage. While most countries in the world, both developed and developing, have found it difficult to effectively handle the challenges thrown up by the Covid-19 pandemic and the Russia-Ukraine conflict, India, through its bold and visionary leadership and prudent policies, has been able to successfully navigate the headwinds it has encountered over the last three years.

 

Given the importance of G20 and current geo-political scenario, G20 becomes an important topic for GD PI WAT for IIMs and MBA Admissions. MBAUniverse.com presents a complete analysis of GD PI WAT topic   

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 G20 2023 in Indian Presidency. This GD topic delves into important details on What is G-20, G20 Countries, How G20 Works, Benefits of G-20, G20 Summit highlights 2022, G20 Summit and India’s Leadership

 

What is G-20? Background, Inception and Important Milestones in Journey of G 20
The Group of Twenty Nations, known as G20, is the global forum for international economic cooperation. The G20 was founded in 1999 after the Asian financial crisis as a forum for the Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors to discuss global economic and financial issues. Then in 2008, G20 was upgraded to the level of Heads of State/Government in the wake of the global economic and financial crisis of 2007, and, in 2009, was designated the “premier forum for international economic cooperation”.

 

Today, G20 Summit is held annually, under the leadership of a rotating Presidency. The G20 initially focused largely on broad macroeconomic issues, but now benefits of G20 have expanded to cover its agenda to inter-alia include trade, climate change, sustainable development, health, agriculture, energy, environment, climate change, and anti-corruption.

 

G20 Members – World’s most powerful nations, together
The Group of Twenty (G20) comprises 19 countries and the European Union. The G20 members represent around 85% of the global GDP, over 75% of the global trade, and about two-thirds of the world population. Here are the names of G20 Members:

  1. Argentina
  2. Australia
  3. Brazil
  4. Canada
  5. China
  6. France
  7. Germany
  8. India
  9. Indonesia
  10. Italy
  11. Japan
  12. Mexico
  13. Republic of Korea
  14. Russia
  15. Saudi Arabia
  16. South Africa
  17. Türkiye
  18. United Kingdom
  19. United States of America
  20. European Union

How G20 Works: Presidency steers the G20 agenda

  • The G20 Presidency steers the G20 agenda for one year and hosts the Summit. 
  • The G20 consists of two parallel tracks: the Finance Track and the Sherpa Track. Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors lead the Finance Track while Sherpas lead the Sherpa Track.
  • The G20 process from the Sherpa side is coordinated by the Sherpas of member countries, who are personal emissaries of the Leaders.
  • Within the two tracks, there are thematically oriented working groups in which representatives from the relevant ministries of the members as well as from invited/guest countries and various international organisations participate.
  • In addition, there are Engagement Groups which bring together civil societies, parliamentarians, think tanks, women, youth, labour, businesses and researchers of the G20 countries.
  • The Group does not have a permanent secretariat. The Presidency is supported by the Troika – previous, current and incoming Presidency. During India’s Presidency, the troika will comprise Indonesia, India and Brazil, respectively.

G20 Logo & Theme for Indian Presidency
The G20 Logo draws inspiration from the vibrant colours of India’s national flag – saffron, white and green, and blue. It juxtaposes planet Earth with the lotus, India’s national flower that reflects growth amid challenges. The Earth reflects India’s pro-planet approach to life, one in perfect harmony with nature. Below the G20 logo is “Bharat”, written in the Devanagari script. The theme of India’s G20 Presidency - “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam” or “One Earth · One Family · One Future” - is drawn from the ancient Sanskrit text of the Maha Upanishad. Essentially, the theme affirms the value of all life – human, animal, plant, and microorganisms – and their interconnectedness on the planet Earth and in the wider universe.

 

G20 Summit and India’s Leadership
India emerged as a “leader, solution provider and consensus builder” at the Bali Summit in 2022. The shadow of the Russia-Ukraine conflict loomed large over the deliberations in the run up to the Summit. It was not found possible to arrive at a suitable, mutually acceptable language on the conflict in several of the G20 meetings that preceded the Summit. India was able to act as a bridge between the opposing sides on the issue, most of them supporting the position of the western bloc to criticize Russia for its attack on Ukraine, and, some others, who were reluctant to take sides in the conflict. In the final hours of the Summit, a compromise solution was achieved which reiterated the assertion by Prime Minister Modi to Russian President Vladimir Putin in Samarkand on the sidelines of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Summit that “today is not an era of war”, as also that the solution to the conflict should be found through ‘’dialogue and diplomacy’’ and not through war. In addition, the inadmissibility of the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons is also contained in the Bali Declaration. The Declaration covers a range of other issues, from combatting climate change to eradicating corruption, and from Covid vaccination to imparting computer skills to women.

 

Education is one of the priority areas of G20, says Minister Dharmendra Pradhan
Union Education Minister Dharmendra Pradhan said education is one of the priority areas of the G20. Pradhan also called for widespread preparations ahead of the G20 summit. "The meeting under India's presidency is also an opportunity to share what the country has achieved in the education sector, particularly after the launch of National Education Policy (NEP) 2020," a senior Ministry of Education official said. The Education Working Group will be holding seminars on the role of digital technology in education and TVET (technical and vocational education and training) and the future of work, leading to a meeting of G20 education ministers on June 28, 2023. As per the reports, the 'Education Working Group' will be releasing a G20 EdWG report, compendium of best practices and a report on the two seminar themes leading to the G20 Education Ministers' declaration.

 

G20 in India: Road Ahead
India will be hosting over 200 meetings across the nation in 50 cities. As per the sources, the meetings will take place in less explored parts of the country at exotic locations of India. Many are hopeful that India can make meaningful contributions to the global economy and can help improve the current unstable geopolitical state of affairs during her reign as president. India, despite mounting global pressure, has been able to maintain positive diplomatic ties with all countries and factions. India will also face many challenges during its presidency. Many predict that as India brings its tried and tested policies to the G-20 Presidency, the world will greatly benefit under the Brand India approach.

 

Students and MBA Aspirants should keep track of G20 meetings to understand the governments emphasis and impact. 

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