G 20 - India Presidency 2023: Key Achievements, History; How it Met Expectations

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G20 Leaders Summit concluded on September 10, 2023 at Delhi under Presidency of India. PM Modi who presided over the Summit used the nameplate BHARAT instead of India on the placard placed at his table. Top world leaders have congratulated Prime Minister Narendra Modi for the "historic success" of India's G20 presidency and hailed his "decisive leadership" for championing the voice of the Global South. The world leaders also hailed India's hospitality and praised the PM for presiding over a successful summit, while noting that the country's message of 'one earth, one family, one future' (Vasudhaiv Kutumbkam) resonated strongly with all the delegates. 

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Given the importance of G20 and current geo-political scenario, G20 becomes an important topic for GD PI WAT for IIMs and MBA Admissions. This GD topic delves into important details on What is G-20, G20 Countries, How G20 Works, Benefits of G-20, G20 Summit highlights, G20 Summit and India’s Leadership. But before the complete detailed analysis of this GD PI WAT topic about G20 is presented by MBAUniverse.com, let’s know the key outcomes and highlights of recently concluded G20 Leaders’ Summit at Delhi in Indian Presidency:

G20 Leaders’ Summit Delhi Declaration-Key Highlights & Achievements

After conducting about 200 Meetings of G-20 Nations on various aspects of Global interests, India finally held G20 Summit in Delhi at the Bharat Mandapam on September 9 and 10, 2023. Highlighting the achievements of G20 Summit under India Presidency in Delhi, the Finance Minister of India, Nirmala Sitharaman said that many outcomes of India's presidency contain comprehensive strategies for all developing nations.  

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The Group of 20 adopted the New Delhi Leaders Summit Declaration, after a consensus was reached among member states. Post-adoption of the declaration, the government held a press briefing highlighting work under India's G20 presidency. Key Highlights of Achievements of G20 Summit under India's Presidency are:

  • '100 per cent' consensus: India achieved '100 per cent' consensus on developmental and geo-political issues in the Declaration, which avoided mentioning the Russian invasion of Ukraine and made a general call to all states to follow the principle of respecting each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty.
  • Expansion of UNSC: Prime Minister Narendra Modi made a renewed push for expansion of the UN Security Council and reforms in all global institutions to reflect world's "new realities", as the G20 summit drew to a close with the US, Russia and France praising the meeting outcomes under Indian presidency. Addressing the 'One Future' session at the summit, PM Modi shared that it is necessary the global bodies should reflect the "new realities" to lead the world towards a better future and said, “When the UN was established, the world was completely different from what it is today. At that time there were 51 founding members in the UN. Today the number of countries included in the UN is around 200. Despite this, the number of permanent members in the UNSC remains the same."
  • African Union's induction in G20: The 55-country African Union was also granted permanent G20 membership which is a milestone for India's presidency. President of the Union of Comoros and Chairperson of the African Union, Azali Assoumani, also thanked India for its support to their candidacy. While South African President Cyril Ramaphosa lauded India for its role in getting the AU admitted in the G20, Netherlands Prime Minister Mark Rutte thanked the Indian presidency for placing the Global South at the centre of the grouping.
  • India-Middle East-Europe Corridor announced: India along with the US and several major economies announced an ambitious India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor with PM Modi emphasising on respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations while promoting connectivity initiatives. The new economic corridor, which many see as an alternative to China's Belt and Road Initiative, was jointly announced by the leaders of the US, India, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, France, Germany, Italy and the European Union on the sidelines of the G20 summit.
  • Crypto currencies Regulation: PM Modi described cyber security and crypto currencies as among the burning issues affecting the present and future of the world. The crypto currency is a new subject for social order, and monetary and financial stability, seeking the development of global standards to regulate it. Cyber space has emerged as a new source of funding for terrorism and global cooperation and framework are necessary for securing it.
  • Bilateral meets to Safeguard Interests of India: PM Modi held a series of bilateral meetings with world leaders, including French President Emmanuel Macron, German Chancellor Olaf Scholz and Canadian PM Justin Trudeau, and discussed issues of mutual interests.
  • Discussion on pro-Khalistan protests: Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said that the issue of pro-Khalistani protests in his country came up during his meeting with PM Modi and asserted that Canada will work on preventing violence and push back against hatred. Trudeau further stressed that “the actions of the few do not represent the entire community or Canada”, in regard to the Khalistani community.
  • India’s initiatives to combat climate change: Over two days of G20 deliberations, several leaders of the bloc's member countries hailed Prime Minister Narendra Modi's initiatives to combat climate change, with Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida praising him for the concept of "Mission LiFE". The Canadian Prime Minister said that India is an extraordinarily important economy in the world and an important partner for Canada to tackle issues like climate change and supporting growth and prosperity for citizens.
  • Resolving Russia-Ukraine issue: The text relating to Russia-Ukraine conflict in the New Delhi Leaders' Declaration is a "convergent consensus" rather than a "divisive consensus" and it could show a path to resolution of the crisis, a day after a breakthrough on the contentious issue was achieved to help the G20 leaders come out with a 37-page Declaration marking a huge diplomatic win for India.
  • World Leaders Shower Praise on India: Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said the G20 Summit under India's presidency was a "breakthrough" conclave in many ways as its outcomes showed a path to the world to move forward on a range of challenges and demonstrated the strength and importance of the Global South. Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida hailed Prime Minister Modi for providing "great leadership" of the G20.
  • G20 presidential gavel handed over to Brazil's Lula: PM Modi handed over the G20 presidential gavel to Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and expressed faith that India's successor will further global unity and prosperity. 

G20 India Presidency 2023: Succeeds Indonesia  

The Group of Twenty, popularly known as G20, is the global forum for international economic cooperation. It plays an important role in shaping and strengthening global architecture and governance on all major international economic issues. India G20 Presidency 2023 took effect from December 1, 2022 to November 23, 2023. Prime Minister Narendra Modi formally received the baton of the India G20 presidency 2023 (the Group of 20 countries comprising 19 large economies and the European Union) from Indonesian president Joko Widodo at the conclusion of the 17th G20 Summit 2022 in Bali on 16 November 2022. 

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While accepting the responsibility of G 20 Presidency, PM Modi had outlined the G20 Theme and said that India’s G20 presidency is “inclusive, ambitious, decisive and action-oriented”. He said that it will be India’s endeavour that “G20 works as a global prime mover to give impetus to collective action”. Accordingly, all the G20 Countries comprising the G20 Members, are to work together at G20 Summit 2023. 

 

India’s assumption of the G20 presidency has decisively signalled its emergence as a significant player on the global stage. While most countries in the world, both developed and developing, have found it difficult to effectively handle the challenges thrown up by the Covid-19 pandemic and the Russia-Ukraine conflict, India, through its bold and visionary leadership and prudent policies, has been able to successfully navigate the headwinds it has encountered over the last three years.

What is G-20? Background, Inception and Important Milestones in Journey of G 20

The Group of Twenty Nations, known as G20, is the global forum for international economic cooperation. The G20 was founded in 1999 after the Asian financial crisis as a forum for the Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors to discuss global economic and financial issues. Then in 2008, G20 was upgraded to the level of Heads of State/Government in the wake of the global economic and financial crisis of 2007, and, in 2009, was designated the “premier forum for international economic cooperation”.

 

Today, G20 Summit is held annually, under the leadership of a rotating Presidency. The G20 initially focused largely on broad macroeconomic issues, but now benefits of G20 have expanded to cover its agenda to inter-alia include trade, climate change, sustainable development, health, agriculture, energy, environment, climate change, and anti-corruption.

G20 Members – World’s most powerful nations, together

The Group of Twenty (G20) comprises 19 countries and the European Union. The G20 members represent around 85% of the global GDP, over 75% of the global trade, and about two-thirds of the world population. Here are the names of G20 Members:

  1. Argentina
  2. Australia
  3. Brazil
  4. Canada
  5. China
  6. France
  7. Germany
  8. India
  9. Indonesia
  10. Italy
  11. Japan
  12. Mexico
  13. Republic of Korea
  14. Russia
  15. Saudi Arabia
  16. South Africa
  17. Türkiye
  18. United Kingdom
  19. United States of America
  20. European Union
  21. African Union

How G20 Works: Presidency steers the G20 agenda

  • The G20 Presidency steers the G20 agenda for one year and hosts the Summit. 
  • The G20 consists of two parallel tracks: the Finance Track and the Sherpa Track. Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors lead the Finance Track while Sherpas lead the Sherpa Track.
  • The G20 process from the Sherpa side is coordinated by the Sherpas of member countries, who are personal emissaries of the Leaders.
  • Within the two tracks, there are thematically oriented working groups in which representatives from the relevant ministries of the members as well as from invited/guest countries and various international organisations participate.
  • In addition, there are Engagement Groups which bring together civil societies, parliamentarians, think tanks, women, youth, labour, businesses and researchers of the G20 countries.
  • The Group does not have a permanent secretariat. The Presidency is supported by the Troika – previous, current and incoming Presidency. During India’s Presidency, the troika will comprise Indonesia, India and Brazil, respectively.

G20 Logo & Theme for Indian Presidency

The G20 Logo draws inspiration from the vibrant colours of India’s national flag – saffron, white and green, and blue. It juxtaposes planet Earth with the lotus, India’s national flower that reflects growth amid challenges. The Earth reflects India’s pro-planet approach to life, one in perfect harmony with nature. Below the G20 logo is “Bharat”, written in the Devanagari script. The theme of India’s G20 Presidency - “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam” or “One Earth · One Family · One Future” - is drawn from the ancient Sanskrit text of the Maha Upanishad. Essentially, the theme affirms the value of all life – human, animal, plant, and microorganisms – and their interconnectedness on the planet Earth and in the wider universe.

G20 Summit and India’s Leadership

India emerged as a “leader, solution provider and consensus builder” at the Bali Summit in 2022. The shadow of the Russia-Ukraine conflict loomed large over the deliberations in the run up to the Summit. It was not found possible to arrive at a suitable, mutually acceptable language on the conflict in several of the G20 meetings that preceded the Summit. India was able to act as a bridge between the opposing sides on the issue, most of them supporting the position of the western bloc to criticize Russia for its attack on Ukraine, and, some others, who were reluctant to take sides in the conflict. In the final hours of the Summit, a compromise solution was achieved which reiterated the assertion by Prime Minister Modi to Russian President Vladimir Putin in Samarkand on the sidelines of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Summit that “today is not an era of war”, as also that the solution to the conflict should be found through ‘’dialogue and diplomacy’’ and not through war. In addition, the inadmissibility of the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons is also contained in the Bali Declaration. The Declaration covers a range of other issues, from combatting climate change to eradicating corruption, and from Covid vaccination to imparting computer skills to women.

Education is one of the priority areas of G20, says Minister Dharmendra Pradhan

Union Education Minister Dharmendra Pradhan said education is one of the priority areas of the G20. Pradhan also called for widespread preparations ahead of the G20 summit. "The meeting under India's presidency is also an opportunity to share what the country has achieved in the education sector, particularly after the launch of National Education Policy (NEP) 2020," a senior Ministry of Education official said. The Education Working Group will be holding seminars on the role of digital technology in education and TVET (technical and vocational education and training) and the future of work, leading to a meeting of G20 education ministers on June 28, 2023. As per the reports, the 'Education Working Group' will be releasing a G20 EdWG report, compendium of best practices and a report on the two seminar themes leading to the G20 Education Ministers' declaration.

G20 in India: 200 Meetings

India hosted over 200 meetings across the nation in 50 cities. The meetings took place in less explored parts of the country at exotic locations of India. India has made meaningful contributions to the global economy and can help improve the current unstable geopolitical state of affairs during its reign as president. India, despite mounting global pressure, has been able to maintain positive diplomatic ties with all countries and factions. Despite facing many challenges, India has fulfilled its responsibility as the President of G20 Summit 2023. will also face many challenges during its presidency. As India brought its tried and tested policies to the G-20 Presidency, the world has greatly benefitted under the Brand India approach. 

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